Italy Reports First Case of Oropouche Fever, Mosquito-Borne Disease Spreads to Europe

Italy Reports First Case of Oropouche Fever, Mosquito-Borne Disease Spreads to Europe

Italy confirmed its first-ever case of Oropouche fever, a mosquito-borne disease, on June 15. This marks the first detection of the disease in continental Europe, previously prevalent in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Spread and Outbreaks

Outbreaks in Latin America and the Caribbean: Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced outbreaks of Oropouche fever this year, with Brazil reporting over 5,500 cases in 2024, a significant increase from previous years.

Introduction to Italy: The Italian patient diagnosed with Oropouche fever had recently returned from the Caribbean, highlighting the disease’s transmission through infected mosquitoes.

Disease Transmission and Symptoms

Transmission: Oropouche virus disease spreads through bites from infected midges and mosquitoes, primarily the Culicoides paraensis midge. Human-to-human transmission has not been observed.

Symptoms: Symptoms typically appear 4-8 days after a bite and include fever, headaches, joint pain, chills, and occasionally nausea and vomiting. Most patients recover within a week, with severe cases being rare.

Global Concerns and Research

Global Spread: The disease is spreading to new regions, including Cuba, which reported its first outbreak recently.

Research Gaps: Oropouche fever remains understudied, impacting understanding of its epidemic potential and geographical spread. Factors like deforestation may influence outbreaks, though more research is needed.


Despite challenges in understanding its full impact and spread, Oropouche fever underscores the need for continued vigilance and research into mosquito-borne diseases.

Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs):

  1. Where was Italy’s first case of Oropouche fever reported?
    • A) Latin America
    • B) The Caribbean
    • C) Continental Europe
    • D) Africa
    • Answer: C) Continental Europe
  2. What is the primary mode of transmission for Oropouche virus?
    • A) Human-to-human contact
    • B) Airborne droplets
    • C) Infected food and water
    • D) Mosquito bites
    • Answer: D) Mosquito bites
  3. Which country reported over 5,500 cases of Oropouche fever in 2024?
    • A) Italy
    • B) Cuba
    • C) Brazil
    • D) United States
    • Answer: C) Brazil