28th Session of the UN Climate Change Conference (COP28)

28th Session of the UN Climate Change Conference (COP28)

An Inter-Ministerial delegation from India participated in the 28th Session of the UN Climate Change Conference (COP 28) in Dubai, UAE, from November 30, 2023, to December 13, 2023.

Topics Discussed at COP 28

The discussions at COP 28 covered various crucial subjects, including:

  1. First Global Stocktake (GST)
    • Emphasis on nationally determined contributions aligned with the Paris Agreement.
    • Just, orderly, and equitable transition away from fossil fuels.
    • Accelerating efforts for the phase-down of unabated coal power.
    • Global goals for net-zero emission energy systems by mid-century.
    • Triple renewable energy capacity globally by 2030.
    • Commitment to peak global emissions by 2025.
    • Recognition of the small and depleting global carbon budget.
    • Developed countries urged to provide financial resources to developing countries.
  2. Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA)
    • Finalization of the ‘Emirates Framework for Global Climate Resilience.’
    • Global targets in areas such as water supply, climate-resilient food, health services, human settlement, and culture.
    • Inclusion of vulnerability assessment and early warning systems.
  3. Loss and Damage Fund
    • Adoption of the operationalization of new funding arrangements, including a fund hosted by the World Bank.
    • Commitments from 19 countries totaling $792 million towards the fund.
  4. Just Transition Work Programme
    • Aimed at implementing the Paris Agreement across energy, socioeconomic, workforce, and other dimensions.
  5. Santiago Network for Loss and Damage
    • Selection of UNDRR and UNOPS consortium for hosting the Santiago network secretariat for five years.
  6. Article 6 of the Paris Agreement
    • Discussion on the development of a UNFCCC web-based platform for non-market approaches.
    • Parties to undertake identification, development, and implementation of non-market approaches once the platform is operational.

Minister’s Announcement in Lok Sabha

The information about India’s participation and outcomes of COP 28 was provided by Union Minister of State for Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, Shri Ashwini Kumar Choubey, in a written reply in the Lok Sabha.

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with Answers:

  1. What was the focus of the First Global Stocktake (GST) at COP 28?
    • A. Fossil fuel exploration
    • B. Renewable energy capacity
    • C. Loss and damage response
    • D. All of the above
    Answer: B. Renewable energy capacity
  2. Which framework was finalized for Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) at COP 28?
    • A. Paris Framework
    • B. Kyoto Framework
    • C. Emirates Framework
    • D. Global Resilience Framework
    Answer: C. Emirates Framework
  3. Where will the new fund for responding to loss and damage be hosted for the initial period of four years?
    • A. United Nations
    • B. World Bank
    • C. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • D. Green Climate Fund
    Answer: B. World Bank
  4. What does the Just Transition Work Programme at COP 28 aim to achieve?
    • A. Phase-out of renewable energy
    • B. Implementation of the Paris Agreement across various dimensions
    • C. Fossil fuel subsidies
    • D. Carbon trading mechanisms
    Answer: B. Implementation of the Paris Agreement across various dimensions
  5. Who will host the Santiago network secretariat for an initial term of five years under the Santiago Network for Loss and Damage?
    • A. Greenpeace
    • B. UNDRR and UNOPS consortium
    • C. World Health Organization (WHO)
    • D. International Labour Organization (ILO)
    Answer: B. UNDRR and UNOPS consortium