Gandhi Jayanti and International Day of Non Violence Observed on 2nd October 2022

Gandhi Jayanti and International Day of Non Violence Observed on 2nd October 2022

Gandhi Jayanti is an event celebrated in India to mark the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi. It is celebrated annually on 2 October, and is one of the three national holidays of India.

Three National Holidays of India

DateEnglish nameCommemorates
26 JanuaryRepublic DayComing into force of the Constitution of India (1950)
15 AugustIndependence DayIndependence from the British Raj (1947)
2 OctoberGandhi JayantiBirthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869)

 

International Day of Non-Violence

The UN General Assembly announced on 15 June 2007 that it adopted a resolution which declared that 2 October will be celebrated as the International Day of Non-Violence as he was a non-violent freedom fighter. He is also known as the “Father of The Nation” and this title was given to him by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose for his relentless struggles for independence.

Life Chronology of Mahatma Gandhi

DateYearDetails
2 October1869Birth at Porbandar.
1882Marriage with Kasturbai, aged 13.
June1888Son, Harilal born.
29 September1888Reached Southampton, England
6 November1888Enrolled at the Inner Temple, Inn of Court
27 May1891Called to the Bar.
28 October1892Son, Manilal born.
25 May1893Reached Durban, Natal.
26 May1893Refused to remove his Paghadi; left the court.
31 May1893Thrown off the first class carriage of the train at Pietermartizburg Station.
1893Read Tolstoy’s ‘Kingdom of God is Within You’.
22 August1894Founded the ‘Natal Indian Congress’.
9 July1896Commenced writing the ‘Green Pamphlet’ at Rajkot.
16 November1896Public lecture at Poona; chaired by Ramkrishna Bhandarkar.
4 May1897Son, Ramdas born.
11 October1899Established Indian Ambulance Corp during the Boer War.
22 May1900Assisted Kasturbai in the delivary of son Devadas.
4 June1903First issue of ‘Indian Opinion’ published.
December1904Established ‘Phoenix Settlement’.
20 July1906Took the vow of Brahmcharya.
11 September1906Advent of Satyagraha at Empire Theatre, Johannesburg, where people took a pledge with God as their witness, to oppose the Black Act.
1 October1906Left for England as a member of the Indian Delegation.
22 March1907Asiatic Registration Bill passed in Transvaal Parliament.
1908The term ‘Satyagraha’ adopted based on Maganlal Gandhi’s fomulation ‘Sadagraha’.
10 January1908Awarded two months’ simple imprisonment for refusal to obtain registration.
30 January1908Agreement signed with General Smuts on voluntary registration.
10 February1908Mir Alam and others assault Gandhiji.
16 August1908Breach of faith and bonfire of certificate.
14 October1908Awarded two months’ rigourous imprisonment for entry into the Transvaal without permit.
23 June1909Left for England as a member of the Indian Delegation.
13-22 November1909Wrote ‘Hind Swarajya’ aboard the ship ‘Kildonan Castle’.
11-18 December1909‘Hind Swarajya’ published in ‘Indian Opinion’.
March1910‘Hind Swarajya’ proscribed. Sent a copy of English rendering ‘Indian Home Rule’ to Tolstoy.
23 June1910Established Tolstoy Farm; vowed to eschew milk; commenced experiments in frutarian diet.
22 October1912Gopalkrishna Gokhale’s South Africa tour commenced.
22 September1913Kasturba and others arrested.
23-Sep1913Kasturba was awarded 3 months’ rigourous imprisonment.
18 December1913MKG released from jail unconditionally with others, before the completion of  the period of imprisonement.
22 December1913Kasturba released from prison.
26 June1914Indians’ Relief Bill (1914), passed.
18 July1914Travelled to London to meet Gokhale; Phoenix party at Santiniketan.
17 February1915Visited Santiniketan.
5 April1915Visited Kumbh Mela, Hardwar.
20 May1915Established ‘Satyagraha Ashram’, Kochrab.
26 June1915Awarded the ‘Kaisare Hind’ medal.
11 September1915First Harijan family of Dudabhai, Danibehn and Laxmi joined the Ashram.
15 November1915Elected as Vice President of Gujarat Sabha.
6 February1916Lectured at Benaras Hindu University.
26 December1916Met Jawaharlal Nehru for the first time at Lucknow Congress.
10 April1917Travelled to Patna with Rajkumar Shukla to investigate condition of indigo farmers.
18 April1917Gave a statement in the court about disobedience of prohibitary orders.
17 June1917Sabarmati Ashram established.
20 October1917Presided over the Second Gujarati Education Conference, Bharuch.
3 November1917Presided over the First Gujarat Political Conference, Godhara.
7 November1917Mahadev Desai joined as Secretary.
14 February1918Appointed to arbitar the dispute between Mill-owners and Mill-hands of Ahmedabad.
15 March1918Indefinite fast to keep the resolve of striking Mill-hands commenced.
18 March1918Broke fast after compromise.
22 March1918Addressed the public meeting of 5000 peasants at Nadiad; advised them to not pay land revenue.
24 February1919Satyagraha pledge against ‘Rowlett Act’.
6 April1919National Hartal and Satyagraha against the Rowlett Act.
9 April1919Arrested at Palval Station.
13 April1919Massacre at Jallianwala Baug; three days’ fast in Ahmedabad commenced.
7 September1919First issue of ‘Navajivan’ published.
8 October1919First issue of ‘Young India’ published.
15 November1919Congress boycott the Hunter Commission and set up independent inquiry.
2 August1920Returned the honours to the Government, commencement of Non-co-operation.
18 October1920Gujarat Vidyapith established.
24 December1921Given the reigns of the Congress in Ahmedabad.
29 January1922Bardoli Taluka resolved against payment of land revenue and Civil-Disobedience.
4 February1922Policemen at Chauri Chaura killed.
10 March1922Gandhiji and Shankerlal Banker arrested.
11 March1922Charged of sedition for the authorship of three articles in Young India.
18 March1922Trial held at Ahmedabad Circuit House; Judge Broomfield awarded Gandhiji a sentence of six years’ imprisonment.
21 March1922Transferred to Yeravda Prison.
12 January1924Operated for appendicites at Sasoon Hospital, Poona.
5 February1924Released unconditionally.
6 April1924The publication of ‘Dakshin Africana Satyagrahano Itihas’ in Navajivan.
17 September1924Twenty one days’ fast for communal harmony commenced at Maulana Mohammed Ali’s house, Delhi.
26 December1924Presided over the Belgaum Congress.
22 September1925‘All India Spinners’ Association’ established.
7 November1925Madeleine Slade joined Satyagraha Ashram, named Mirabehn.
29 November1925The publication of ‘Satyana Prayogo athava Atmakatha’ commences in Navajivan.
3 December1925The publication of ‘Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth’ commences in Young India.
3 February1928Boycott of Simon Commission.
27 June1929Wrote introduction to ‘Anasktiyoga’.
31 October1929Viceroy Lord Irwin annouces Round Table Conference.
27 December1929Purna Swaraj Resolution adopted at Lahore Congress.
15 February1930Wrote to the Viceroy about his intention to break the Salt Law.
12 March1930Dandi March commences from Satyagraha Ashram.
6 April1930Broke the Salt Law.
5 May1930Arrested and sent to Yeravda Prison.
26 January1931Released from prison.
5 March1931Gandhi-Irwin pact signed.
12 September1931In London as the sole representative of the Congress at the Second Round Table Conference.
13 September1931Recorded a message for the people of America.
9 October1931Met Maria Montessori.
20 October1931‘God is’ recorded.
5 November1931Attended (in his loin-cloth) the Royal reception for the delegates of the Second Round Table Conference at the Buckingham Palace at the invitation of Emperor George V.
13 November1931Declared his opposition to the proposed Communal Award.
1 December1931Second Round Table Conference ends.
6 December1931With Romain Rolland.
12 December1931In Vatican. Met Mussolini in Rome.
1 January1932Congress Working Committee adopted the resolution of Civil Disobedience.
4 January1932Arrested and sent to Yeravda for indefinite period; Vallabhbhai fellow prisoner.
10 March1932Mahadev Desai transfered to Yeravda.
17 August1932Premier Ramsay Macdonald announced the Communal Award.
18 August1932Letter to Ramsay Macdonald declaring his intentions to fast unto death against the Communal Award.
20 September1932The fast commenced.
24 September1932Poona Pact signed.
26 September1932Broke the fast.
30 September1932‘Harijan Sevak Sangh’ established.
11 February1933Commneced publication of ‘Harijan’. ‘Harijan Sevak’ (Hindi), commenced publication on 23rd February and ‘Harijanbandhu’ (Gujarati) commenced publication on 12th March.
29 April1933Resolved to fast for 21 days at midnight.
1 May1933Issued a statement about the fast; unconditional and for self-purification.
8 May1933Commenced the fast. Released from prison.
29 May1933Fast broken.
31 July1933Declare his intention to offer Individual Satyagraha.
1 August1933Arrested at Ahmedabad and sent to Sabarmati Prison; shifted to Yeravda later.
14 September1933Went to Wardha with a decision to not involve himself with politics.
30 September1933Satyagraha Ashram, Sabarmati given to Harijan Sevak Sangh.
7 November1933Nationwide Harijan Yatra commenced.
25 April1934A mob attacked in Bihar at the instigation of Lalanath Shastri.
9 May1934Toured Orissa on foot.
18 May1934Withdrew Collective Satyagraha.
25 June1934Bomb thrown at his motorcade in Poona.
17 September1934Declared his intention to retire from Congress.
30 October1934Resigned from the Congress.
14 December1934‘All India Village Industries’ Association’ established.
30 April1936Moved to Segaon from Wardha.
31 October1936Presided over the 12th Gujarati Sahitya Parishad.
12 November1936Travancore temples opened to Harijans.
 2 February1939Kasturba arrested in Rajkot by Thakoresaheb.
3 March1939Commenced fast at Rajkot against the breach of trust.
7 March1939Broke the fast; Chief Justice Maurice Gwyer appointed the arbitrator.
16 April1939Sir Maurice Gwyer declared award in favour of the people of Rajkot; Muslims and Bhayats demonstrate against Gandhiji and disrupt a prayer meeting.
23 July1939Wrote a letter to Adolf Hitler.
31 October1939Congress Ministries resign.
5 March1940Segaon named Sevagram.
11 October1940Congress Working Committee meeting at Sevagram; Individual Satyagraha proposed.
17 October1940Vinoba chosen as the first Individual Satyagrahi.
13 December1941‘On Constructive Programme’ published.
30 December1941The Congress Working Committee at Bardoli accepted Gandhiji’s request to free him from the responsibility of guiding the Congress.
15 January1942Informed Congress Working Committee at Sevagram that Jawaharlal Nehru would be his political heir.
27 March1942Advised the Cripps Mission to return to England.
14 July1942Congress Working Committee adopted the resolution for immediate withdrawl of the British from India.
8 August1942‘Quit India’ resolution adopted; gave the call ‘Do or Die’.
9 August1942Gandhiji and Congress Working Committee members arrested; Gandhiji imprisoned at the Aga Khan Palace.
15 August1942Death of Mahadev Desai;cremated at Aga Khan Palace.
10 February1943Commenced a 21 day fast.
22 February1944Death of Kasturba; cremated at Aga Khan Palace.
6 May1944Released unconditionally .
14 June1945Lord Wavell calls for negotiations.
15 June1945Congress Working Committee members released from Ahmedanagar Fort Prison. Ban on Congress lifted.
14 July1945The Viceroy declared the Simla Conference a failure.
23 March1946Three member British delegation reaches Delhi.
25 June1946The Congress Working Committee adopted resolution to accept the formation of the Constituent Assembly.
4 July1946The Viceroy formed an Interim Government.
16 August1946Communal riots in Calcutta.
2 September1946A 12 member Interim Government headed by Pandit Nehru formed.
10 October1946Communal violence in Noakhali.
15 October1946Muslim League representatives joined the Interim Government.
27 October1946Communal riots in Bihar.
6 November1946Left for Noakhali.
19 November1946Handed over the responsibility of Harijan Journals to Kaka Kalelkar, Kishorelal Mashruwala and Narahari Parikh.
2 January1947Bare Foot March to Noakhali commences.
30 March1947Tour of violence-affected villages of Bihar.
31 March1947Met the new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten.
1 April1947Addressed the Asian Relations Conference.
13 April1947Left for Bihar.
2 June1947The Congress, the Muslim League and the representatives of the Sikhs accept the plan of Partition.
13 June1947The Congress Working Committee adopted resolution to accept the Partition.
13 August1947In Calcutta with Shaheed Suhrawardy
15 August1947Spent the day in fast and prayer.
31 August1947Indefinite fast against the communal violence in Calcutta.
4 September1947Broke the fast.
9 September1947Reached Delhi.
12 January1948Commenced fast at Delhi.
18 January1948Broke the fast.
20 January1948A bomb thrown during the Prayer Meeting.
30 January1948Took three bullets on his chest. Godse the assassin.
31 January1948Cremated on the banks of the Yamuna by Ramdas.