Global Efforts to Enhance Organ Transplantation Availability

Global Efforts to Enhance Organ Transplantation Availability

At the 77th World Health Assembly, member states passed a resolution aimed at enhancing organ transplantation availability globally. The resolution addresses issues ranging from increasing donations to improving healthcare system integration and combating organ trafficking.

Key Provisions of the Resolution

  1. Global Strategy Development: Member states are tasked with developing a global strategy on organ transplantation, to be presented for adoption in 2026.
  2. World Donor Day: The resolution encourages the establishment of a World Donor Day to raise public awareness and increase donations.
  3. Equitable Access: Despite progress, equitable access to transplantation remains a challenge, particularly between developing and developed countries.
  4. Guiding Principles: Member states are urged to align with WHO Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue, and Organ Transplantation to enhance availability, particularly focusing on deceased donation.
  5. Integration into Healthcare Systems: Commitment to integrate organ transplantation into healthcare systems, with a focus on deceased donation as a routine practice.
  6. Preventing Exploitation: Measures to prevent the exploitation of living donors and ensure adequate follow-up care.
  7. Expert Committee Establishment: The director-general is urged to establish an expert committee to aid in developing the global strategy and its implementation.

Current Organ Donation Scenario and Challenges

  • Organ donation in India increased from 4,990 in 2013 to 16,041 in 2022. However, this still falls short of demand, particularly for kidney transplants, with an annual need of 200,000.
  • Globally, over 150,000 solid organ transplants are performed annually, meeting only a fraction of the global need.

Impact of COVID-19 and Addressing Trafficking Concerns

  • The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected organ donation and transplantation activities, necessitating approaches to strengthen healthcare system resilience.
  • Insufficient access to transplantation therapies contributes to trafficking in persons for organ removal and trafficking in human organs, posing significant risks to public health and human rights.

Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs):

  1. What was the main focus of the resolution passed at the 77th World Health Assembly?
    • A) Enhancing healthcare infrastructure
    • B) Improving organ transplantation availability
    • C) Combating infectious diseases
    • D) Promoting mental health awareness
    Answer: B) Improving organ transplantation availability
  2. How often is the global strategy on organ transplantation scheduled to be presented for adoption?
    • A) Annually
    • B) Every two years
    • C) Every five years
    • D) In 2026
    Answer: D) In 2026
  3. What does the resolution encourage regarding deceased donation?
    • A) Limiting deceased donation
    • B) Encouraging deceased donation as a routine practice
    • C) Banning deceased donation
    • D) Ignoring deceased donation
    Answer: B) Encouraging deceased donation as a routine practice