Alarm bells ring in Zambia as anthrax, a highly infectious bacterial disease, spreads across nine provinces, affecting over 680 people and claiming four lives. The outbreak, first identified in May 2023, shows no signs of slowing down, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to warn of potential further spread.
Transmitted through contact with infected animals or their products, anthrax can manifest in three forms, each with its own set of symptoms. Cutaneous anthrax, the most common, presents with painful, black sores, while gastrointestinal anthrax mimics food poisoning but can escalate to severe abdominal distress. Inhalational anthrax, the deadliest form, starts with mild cold-like symptoms before progressing to potentially fatal respiratory failure.
Diagnosis involves laboratory tests, and although no specific exposure test exists, public health investigations play a crucial role in identifying cases. Fortunately, treatment with antibiotics like ciprofloxacin is effective if started early. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and intensive care. Vaccines for both animals and humans exist, but human use is typically restricted to high-risk occupational groups.
The WHO considers the risk of further spread within Zambia to be high, urging continued vigilance and preventive measures. These include raising awareness among communities, educating them about safe handling of animal products, and implementing robust animal vaccination programs.
This outbreak highlights the importance of public health surveillance and rapid response mechanisms to contain infectious diseases before they spiral out of control. By working together, Zambia and the international community can combat this anthrax outbreak and protect public health.